Vintage engraving of the Battle of Chaeronea. The Battle of Chaeronea was fought in 338 BC, near the city of Chaeronea in Boeotia, between the Macedonians led by Philip II of Macedon and an alliance of some of the Greek city-states including Athens and Thebes. The battle was the culmination of Philip’s campaign in Greece (339 to 338 BC) and resulted in a decisive victory for the Macedonians.